Oct 24th 2000 
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Ernie Els shot a 4-under 68 Saturday to leave the South African star one stroke behind leader Daisuke Kataoka of Japan after three rounds of the Indonesian Masters.     The District's political elite squeezed into an atrium in the John A.
Wilson Building yesterday to celebrate the 100th anniversary of

the beaux-arts style structure -- at once a symbol of the city's federal control, its

longtime struggle for autonomy and most simply, an awesome display of craftsmanship.On paper, the Cavalcantes are a Brazilian success story, a solidly middle class

Rio de Janeiro family with a car, a four-bedroom, four-bath house and a full schedule of extracurriculars for the kids.    
Irish bishops call the legislation, which would permit abortions in cases where a threat existed

to a woman’s life, morally unacceptable.    
NSA leaker Edward Snowden announced at a meeting Friday with human-rights organizations at Moscow's Sheremetyevo International Airport that he will seek asylum in

Russia, Tatyana Lokshina of Human Rights Watch told The Washington Post. He explained that asylum is the only way he can guarantee his safety to stay in the country, where he's been since arriving from Hong Kong in late June. "I am only in a position to accept Russia's offer because of my inability to travel," he said, according to Lokshina, adding that he ultimately hopes to travel to Latin America, where three countries have offered him asylum. Read full article >>     Six MIT faculty members from across the Institute have been appointed to one-year terms as Skolkovo

Foundation Professors. The MIT-based appointments recognize significant engagement in the collaboration between MIT and the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech) in Moscow. The pilot recipients are Regina Barzilay, Skolkovo Foundation Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering; Duane Boning, Skolkovo Foundation Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; David Gamarnik, Skolkovo Foundation Professor of Operations Research; Fiona Murray, Skolkovo Foundation Associate Professor of Entrepreneurship; Bruce Tidor, Skolkovo Foundation Professor of Computer Science and Biological Engineering; and Forest White, Skolkovo Foundation Associate Professor of Biological Engineering.Faculty were informed of the appointments by MIT Vice President Claude Canizares; terms began on Jan.
1 and continue through 2013.As faculty lead for the MIT Skoltech Initiative, Boning hopes that the honor draws attention to other opportunities for MIT faculty and researchers to work with Skoltech.
“I am grateful for the support and excited about what it represents for the MIT community. The collaboration with Russia is creating new ways to experiment, from support for collaborative research and course development, to sabbatical and leave opportunities in Moscow,” he says.Tidor,
who advises on faculty search, adds, “The mission to create a new innovation-based university in Moscow is compelling. Working cross-culturally with colleagues, developing a

global recruiting strategy, and trying to build some of the best features of MIT in a different place is exciting, challenging, and rewarding.
In working to create an effective environment for faculty recruitment, our search committees have become a mechanism for bridging departments and exchanging trade miner review MIT and for building global and local networks.”Working with Skoltech faculty and leadership, the six recipients have helped launch joint research, innovation and educational programs, MISTI-Russia activities, and other mechanisms for collaboration. One of the earliest decisions a home shopper must make is where to look. MIT biological engineers have found a way to mass-produce smell receptors in the laboratory, an advance that paves the way for "artificial noses" to be created and used in a variety of settings.The work could also allow scientists to unlock the mystery of how the sense of smell can recognize a seemingly infinite range of odors."Smell is perhaps one of the oldest and most primitive senses, but nobody really understands how it works. It still remains a tantalizing enigma," said Shuguang Zhang, associate director of MIT's Center for Biomedical Engineering and senior author of a paper on the work appearing online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).Artificial noses could one day replace drug- and explosive-sniffing dogs, and could have numerous medical applications, according to Zhang and his colleagues.

DARPA recently approved funding for the team's MIT (microfluidic-integrated transduction) RealNose project.Until
now, efforts to understand the molecular basis of smell have been stymied by the difficulty in working with the proteins that detect odors, known as olfactory receptors."The main barrier to studying smell is that we haven't been able to

make enough receptors and purify them to homogeneity. Now, it's finally available as a raw material for people to utilize, and should enable many new studies into smell research," said Brian Cook, who just defended his MIT PhD thesis based on this work.Smell is one of the most complex and least-understood senses. Humans have a vast olfactory system that includes close to 400 functional genes, more than are dedicated to any other function. Animals such as dogs and mice have around 1,000 functional olfactory receptor genes.That
variety of receptors allows humans and animals to discern tens of thousands of distinct odors.
Each odor activates multiple receptors and this pattern of activation

creates a signature that the brain can recognize as a particular scent.The olfactory receptors that bind to odor molecules are membrane proteins, which span the cell surface. Since cell membranes are composed of a bilayer of fatty lipid molecules, the receptor proteins are highly hydrophobic (water-fearing).
When such proteins are removed from the cell and placed in water-based solutions, they clump up and lose their structure, said Liselotte Kaiser, lead author of the PNAS paper.
That makes it very difficult to isolate the proteins in quantities large enough to study them in detail.Kaiser
and others spent several years developing a method to isolate and purify the proteins by performing each step in a hydrophobic detergent solution, which allows the proteins to maintain their structure and function.The technique reported this week in PNAS involves a cell-free synthesis using commercially available wheat germ extract to produce

a particular receptor, then isolating the protein clickbank pirate purification steps. The method can rapidly produce large amounts of protein -- enough to start structural and functional studies.The
team has also demonstrated a similar method that uses engineered mammalian cells to produce the receptors. That method, reported in PLoS One in August,

takes more time and labor than the cell-free approach, but could have advantages in that the receptor is processed more naturally.In future work,

the team plans to work with researchers worldwide, including MIT's Media Lab and Department of Biology, to develop a portable microfluidic device that can identify an array of different odors. Such a device could be used in medicine for the early diagnosis of certain diseases that produce distinctive odors, such as diabetes and lung, bladder and skin cancers, Zhang said. There are also a wide range of industrial applications for such a smell-based biosensing device, he said.Other authors of the PNAS paper are Johanna Graveland-Bikker, a postdoctoral fellow at MIT, visiting graduate students Dirk Steuerwald and Melanie Vanberghem, and Kara Herlihy of GE Healthcare Biacore.The research was funded by the ROHM Corporation (Japan), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, and a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship. Joyce and Roger Kiley '60, MS '61 provided pure odorants. The Denver Broncos gave Peyton Manning a new target — Tom Brady's favorite receiver. Binzel is part of an international team of astronomers who monitor the skies for approaching asteroids. The scientists receive data from the Minor Planet Center (MPC), a clearinghouse for asteroid discoveries at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Researchers at the MPC collect observational data from telescopes and satellites around the world, then calculate the orbits of asteroids and comets.
Each day, the MPC sends out circulars to astronomers around the world, highlighting new objects discovered in space.When an object’s orbit appears poised to bring it close to Earth, scientists like Binzel take particular notice.
Binzel’s research group routinely reserves time at NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, operating the telescope remotely from MIT to observe objects of interest. When Binzel receives an MPC circular, he scans the data for objects that may come close to Earth, and that are observable using

the NASA scope.
In the case of KT42, the incoming asteroid fit both categories, but the scientists had to act fast: The asteroid was moving at high speed, and would streak past Earth within 24 hours, a small window for scientists to request observing time on the IRTF. Typically, researchers reserve telescope time months in advance, to observe distant planets and stars.
In the event of an incoming asteroid, scientists may put in a last-minute proposal to interrupt a previously scheduled project, though these requests are not always guaranteed.
Tracking an asteroidOn Memorial Day, May 28, 18 hours before the asteroid’s closest approach to Earth, Binzel sent an alert to IRTF, along with a formal request to interrupt the telescope’s program. Several hours later, the facility approved aquaponics 4 you review granting a small window of time to observe and track the asteroid: just after sunset in Hawaii, and just past midnight in Boston. At such a late hour, Binzel opted to observe the asteroid not from his MIT offices, but from an elaborate computer setup at his home.
“I have the capability of doing it from my attic,” Binzel says.
“Once everything was set, I just waited until after midnight, then went upstairs.” At the appointed time, Binzel fired up an array of computer screens, showing Skype sessions with the telescope’s operator, along with a support astronomer and technician in Hilo, Hawaii. Two more screens displayed images from the telescope’s camera, tracking the asteroid in real time, as well as light-intensity data. Over three hours, the researchers took measurements and tracked the asteroid’s incoming path. “These readiness drills are important, because there’s a process to go through, and we want to make sure it works,” Binzel says. “In the event that we really need to work on short order, we’ll have confidence that we’ll be successful.”In
this case, the team quickly analyzed the data and calculated that the asteroid was about 23 feet wide, and likely made from a crumbly carbon material — a combination unlikely to penetrate Earth’s atmosphere intact.
Binzel says in order for an asteroid to make impact,

it would have to be much larger, and made from a hardier material, such as silica or iron. He speculates that an object 30 to 60 feet wide might make it through the atmosphere, breaking up into small meteorites before hitting the ground, while an asteroid 150 to 200 feet wide might hit the surface completely intact. Far-flung objectsBut what brings asteroids close to Earth in the first place? Most of them are located in the asteroid belt, a vast, cluttered region of the solar system that inhabits an orbit between Mars and Jupiter.
These asteroids are leftover chunks of a planet that failed to fully form billions of years ago.
For the most part, these chunks of rock stay within

the asteroid belt.
But every so often, asteroids escape and travel as far as Earth’s orbit.
For 100 years, why this happens remained a mystery.
In the 1980s, Jack Wisdom, a professor of planetary science at MIT, came up with a solution: He discovered that Jupiter’s gravitational field occasionally forces an asteroid out of its orbit, tugging at

the asteroid repeatedly and stretching its orbit until, like an overstretched rubber band, the orbit snaps, flinging the asteroid into space.“Once

in a while, Jupiter will nudge things out and send them our way, for better or worse,” Binzel says. “The dinosaurs probably wish it hadn’t.” Binzel is now looking for ways to improve the asteroid rapid-response program. The May 29 incident, he says, demonstrated a new level of readiness: Scientists were able to quickly gain access to the telescope facility, and the asteroid was the fastest object ever tracked by the telescope. fat loss factor were also able to characterize the asteroid’s size and composition in a limited amount of time — observations that would be essential in the event of an actual impact. In the future, Binzel hopes to improve the telescope’s tracking ability, to observe even faster-approaching objects.
The speed of KT42, he says, was at the upper limit

of what the telescope could reliably track. “This one was so close and so fast, it demonstrated a new level of capability of the telescope,” Binzel says. “Now we’re finding ways to improve for the next one.” BP plans to begin easing mud into its runaway well in the Gulf of

Mexico by Monday night, a preliminary step in a "static kill" procedure that potentially could kill the Macondo well by midweek. Susan Phillips is an energy reporter and multimedia journalist with StateImpact Pennsylvania, a collaboration between NPR, WHYY and WITF. The airline industry is littered with the corpses of failed start-ups.
Washington has called for the release of Kenneth Bae, who was sentenced to 15 years for committing what North Korea called “hostile acts.”    
Quick Study: Acupuncture helps some kids with lazy eye.
President Barack Obama says he's not sure whether he can get Congress to pass his plan to dramatically expand pre-kindergarten in the U.S.     More than three-quarters of the nation's public schools could soon be labeled "failing" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, the Obama administration said Wednesday as it increased efforts to revamp the signature education initiative

of President George W. Bush. MEXICO CITY — For a dead man, Lenin Carballido apparently ran a pretty good campaign. Last Sunday, nearly three years after he was officially declared dead, Carballido was narrowly elected mayor of San Agustin Amatengo, a small town in Mexico’s Oaxaca state.
Read full article >>     The observation about the proliferation of British talent in the American media landscape is hardly new, but something is at work here.    
Lewis Hamilton says he is relishing the chance in Germany to defy media preconceptions that dogged him while he worked in the UK Authoritative. This is characterized by clear limits on the child set by the parents in a

caring, noncoercive manner.
Under pressure from a populist campaign, the Swiss government has moved to curb migrant numbers from the European Union. The debate in Switzerland has echoed a growing anti-immigration mood elsewhere in the Continent. KIEV, Ukraine -- As the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster approached, Yuri Andreyev remembered his exams for a job at the nuclear power plant. Asked to propose a scenario of a reactor explosion, he says he offered three _ and was rebuked.
"Keep it in

your mind, man _ Soviet reactors cannot... ATLANTA -- US Airways Group Inc.

made a hostile $8 billion cash and stock bid for Delta Air Lines Inc. on Wednesday, a deal that would create one of the world's largest carriers.
The move came despite Delta's repeated statements it isn't interested in a

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